Caines, . White, [facsimile edition, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, ]. Wren, Lewis and Capt. Exshaw, Hale, Edward E. Family Cook [, 1st ed. Christmas Fireside London, R. Satchell, Peyton and Co. Jack Ayres Gloucester, Alan Sutton, Munby, — London, John Murray, London, Thomas Tegg, London, Charles Brome, ; [facsimile, Boston, G. Hall, ]. Anthony Thwaite London, Faber and Faber, Lewis, D. Wyndham, and G. Heseltine, eds. Dent, Frank Bergon New York, Viking, Intended for the Amusement of the Fire Side. To which are added, Christmas-Day Entertainment.
London, for the author, Lowe-Porter Harmondsworth, Penguin, Middleton, Thomas, The Collected Works, eds. Gary Taylor, John Lavagnino, et al.
The Gentleman's Magazine archives
Oxford, Clarendon Press, Miles, Clement A. London, D. Browne, et al. Moulton, Gary E. Newcomb, Michael Kassler, Lorna J. Elborg Forster Baltimore, Johns Hopkins, Platts, Rev. London, Henry Fisher, Son, and Co. Ray, J. Cambridge, W. Morden, and ibid. London, J. Torbuck, Mesnard, Scott, Rev. O Mores!
London, E. Smith, Shepard, E. Shepard London, Methuen, Soligny, Victoire, Count de, [pseud. Pemberton, George Grenville. London, John Murray, If No 2 Creek factory catches fire it will likely spread and much valuable property will be affected. Please prevent the re-erection of this building and revert to the boat formerly used. I have sent the Nam Hoi Heen to examine and report. If it is a gambling house it will be closed and a bond taken from the local headman.
Thank you for the quick reply but the gambling den is already being rapidly rebuilt day and night. On the morning of 8 th February the residents of Canton awoke to discover snow on the roofs of their houses. We had previously had days of unseasonably hot weather. We have seen ice occasionally before but this is the first snow we can recall. I now know from this expert at the end of the season that the Fukien Bohea I have been shipping is actually repackaged Congou.
We have an enemy in the camp and his gratuitous information is wrong. That was why tea blending commenced in England. Editorial — East and West. Britain hopes to extend her commerce with China. How can we do that? China is well entitled to maintain her own laws and institutions but can the ruling family, or even the whole Manchu tribe, be the sole interpreters of those laws?
Can the policy of the present conquerors of China demand the obedience and respect of the rest of mankind? We say the principles of international diplomacy should be established in China. We contend we have a right to commerce and we should demand it from this Empire. We should be accepted as equals, not obliged to smuggle and daily break the law, seducing Chinese into combining with us against their own government. This government will never voluntarily grant any rights to foreigners.
That would take a revolution. The concept of rights is unknown in China except for the divine right of a despotic government, the right of office maintained by power. History teaches that the great men of Europe — the wise, the brave, the scientific, the enlightened — are the last to abandon a power they enjoy. Do we expect a divine Emperor to be so selfless as to descend to the level of ordinary mortals?
Why should China recognise our technical and scientific achievements when our relationship is conducted disreputably? Why should she transmute contempt into respect until she knows our power and virtues. At present Chinese and foreigners conspire in crime but not in virtue, bound together by common guilt and a need to keep their mutual activities secret, pandering to the willing corruption of government officials. Such a system cannot long be maintained. A collision must occur and then what can we do without the help of our government?
Property certainly, and life probably, will be endangered. An outraged Manchu or an indignant foreigner could light a conflagration, then can war be avoided? Can China defend herself? If war starts can it be stopped? Will the Chinese admit us only after they have been conquered? It is the national honour and the national interest that must determine our course. We do not advocate coercive measures or acts of aggression but merely acts of self-protection; we are not latter-day Romans. We appeal to reason which the Chinese assert is the defining characteristic of their own race.
We appeal to the honour of England because the best interests of mankind flow from the honourable acts of the individual. Honesty is always the best policy. The Canton Press in its latest issue contends that our relationship with China can be made respectable only by increased trade. It says as long as the present restrictions are maintained, the Chinese government will find itself unable to either prevent or control smuggling. It will therefore, sooner or later, recognise its own interest is to promote and regulate a trade it cannot control. The Canton Press then goes on to compliment the India Company for facilitating a better acquaintance of foreigners with Chinese.
They simply could not prevent it. Their position was so untenable that when the dispute came before parliament they made no attempt to defend it. No modified monopoly was ever proposed by Leadenhall Street because they knew they had lost the confidence of the people. We owe the Company nothing except mistrust for their actions, particularly in its last years.
The great increase in trade since the monopoly ended is cause for regretting it was not determined earlier. Canning had only wanted to renew the Charter for ten years in He was right. We do not mean that. An Imperial Edict would be sufficient guarantee of our rights in Chinese ports. The Canton Press says, even if we had Chinese agreement to a commercial treaty, the smuggling trade will continue because it is based on opium and that commodity will remain illegal. We say smuggling results mainly from onerous duties. In respect of opium, the government of Great Britain encourages us to evade Chinese law.
It is disgraceful to both the national character and to the government. It is indefensible but may be excused. A good man observes the law; a law-breaker cannot be a good man. If Britain wants to stop her merchants systematically breaking the law of China she should adopt a line of conduct that preserves her from disgrace.
The expedients we resort to now are very questionable but we are unprotected. The free trade does not have the force of the Company at its command. It is not reputable for a British trader to be a smuggler however much profit is involved. We are sure the smugglers feel the shame of this stigma and lament the devious means they adopt to make their transactions and protect the interests of their constituents. He has come direct from Anhwei without visiting his family. The day after his arrival he called in the two Heen magistrates and told them gambling will in future be strictly forbidden.
In the Hong Hei Emperor permitted foreigners to trade at all His ports. In He limited foreign trade to Canton. In trade was again limited to Canton. This flexibility therefore makes it conceivable that the To Kwong Emperor might at some future time reopen Chinese ports to foreign trade. This is something Britain already does. Chinese junks from Fukien and Chekiang trade freely at Singapore, Malacca and Penang and are welcome in India, England and any British colonies, should they chose to come.
China cannot ask England to prevent opium smuggling. Its tantamount to placing China under British protection. China must herself prevent the opium trade. England does not seek to interfere in the internal administration of China. She seeks free trade at all the ports and wants her nationals accorded the usual decencies. The Government of India thinks it becoming to produce opium at a profit for sale in China where it is proscribed. It relies on the free traders here to smuggle it across the borders.
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When the opium monopoly is ended and its cultivation neither encouraged nor forbidden, it is unlikely that private speculators could produce the quantities that the Company produces. The foreign trade of China would then become somewhat more respectable and the principled Chinese argument for insulting and denigrating us would be diminished. There is a real British interest in China trade and we should place it on the strong foundations of national power and good faith. Vol 9 No 9 — Tuesday 1 st March A responsible company in Singapore reports six instances of letters from China being kept on board visiting ships and carried on to Calcutta from whence it took months to return them to Singapore.
We must make up a separate bundle for discharge at Singapore so these negligent captains have no further excuse for interfering with our commerce. Vol 9 No 11 — Tuesday 15 th March It is operated by the American Dr Peter Parker. It has direct access to the street behind the factories so patients can come and go without passing through the foreign hongs or raising suspicion they are traitorous natives connecting with foreigners.
There are similar institutions run by the American missionaries in Singapore and Bangkok. There is a large room on the 2 nd storey where can sit awaiting treatment. The hospital can accommodate 40 in-patients. Eye disease is common in China and nearly 5, people are registered as blind in Canton, excluding all those with eye disease but not yet blind. The porter is given numbered slips of bamboo to hand out to attendees and patients are treated in order of arrival.
A card is made out for each patient and, after the first visit, he just produces the card to get a bamboo slip. Up to patients are seen each day. Thursday is surgery day. It was feared females would be discriminated against as they are specifically forbidden to enter the foreign factories but in fact no difficulty has yet arisen. Those females who require admission are attended by relatives throughout their stay. More wealthy patients have their own food brought in while poor people are fed gratuitously. Goods will be inspected.
Goods must be landed in Portuguese boats which will each carry a Customs House guard. The deposit is valid for 6 months after which the goods must be re-exported or entered for consumption in Macau. Traders may use their private warehouses for storage of imports after paying the deposit and such other security as may be required. Goods to and from private warehouses will be escorted by Customs Officers. If they suspect fraud the packages may be opened. Macau ships may load opium in Bombay and Calcutta either for deposit in Macau or trans-shipment outside Macau. Opium re-exported to receiving ships must leave in the same chests it arrived, subject always to Customs House approval.
Vol 9 No 13 — Tuesday 29 th March A poem is included in this edition about the Company. It repeats the common assertion of the free traders that the Company avoided the legislative Act requiring it cease trade by turning itself into a bank, selling Bills and providing trade finance. The poem is poor but here is the last two verses, sung to the tune of the popular Christmas carol:. So John being foiled, now wracked his brains some new plan to invent By which he might his rivals all fully circumvent.
He got the Act into his fist and over it did range. The Editor then notes that the company closed it treasury this year at the time the opium clippers were returning to Calcutta after delivering the stock from the first auction. He says at the very moment that silver dollars from new opium sales were becoming available and being tendered to the Company for Bills, it closed its shop. The Company wishes to repatriate its Indian revenue to London on the best possible terms. They make a bigger profit on the transfer by issuing Bills in China.
They have no other business here or anywhere nearby. Every business wants to maximise profits but this trade finance is influencing our market. By financing an exporter here the foreigner is able to use his capital at least two, more likely three, times. Thus the demand for Chinese exports is suddenly inflated by the greater purchasing power of the exporters and this has inevitably increased prices. By financing tea exports, and subjecting availability of finance to the opinion of its own tea tasters, the India Company continues to control the tea market.
I agree with the rest of the community. The Company was always run for the insiders — for the Directors and their relatives. That they continue to do so is unremarkable. But it has not withdrawn from trade as legislatively required to do and it should be examined by the Board of Control Now run by Bentinck, ex Governor-General of India. Why is he permitting this monopoly to continue. Sgd Y. Letter to the Editor — We have traded here for over a century.
The English flag has waved over our factory and we have frittered away our free birth in exchange for submission that permits trading rights for the Company. Within this century we have twice battered the forts guarding the river. Two years ago Napier came and died. Today we spend almost nothing in promoting our country in the eyes of the Chinese. Let us review our establishment — our three Superintendents and their secretary provide valuable service; our two medical men deserve respect, our two interpreters are able as is our parson particularly in levying fees for marriage services.
And they cannot do as much as one doctor — Dr Peter Parker — has done for America. Dr Parker is now treating the Hoppo for cataract and will likely operate shortly. A successful operation will be news that spreads throughout the Manchu community at Peking to which Hoppo Pang is about to return. Would Pang have volunteered for treatment if Parker was English? Why are we more disliked than any other nation here?
What is to prevent foreign nations gaining Chinese support and entirely supplanting us? Editor — the Chinese dislike us because they fear us; and they fear us because they feel guilty for their policy towards us. It would be a unique pleasure to see any foreign nation gain the confidence of China but Chinese consciousness of unrequited obligations would simply make them hate us more.
Letter to the Editor — Luen Hong Street runs parallel with old and new China Streets but is a little to the west of them. On the west side of the street near the north end are two book stores. I know of no other book stores in the Canton suburbs. They are branches of large establishments inside the city. Mostly they sell novels, romances, songs and amazing stories but I also found a copy of the Canton Register for sale there. The new Viceroy Tang Ting Ching daily exercises the military officers of all ranks. Any officer falling short of his standards is summarily dismissed. A Lieutenant and a Sergeant have already been cashiered.
He is also strictly opposed to gambling and many people have been arrested. Few people now dare open a gambling den. Vol 9 No 15 — Tuesday 12 th April Editorial — The Canton Press of 9 th April says the merchants who agreed to be members of the British Chamber of Commerce at its inception in were less numerous than those who declined. This is untrue. A meeting was fixed for 11 th September but before it was held some people asked for its postponement.
It was however held and the Chamber formed. The following day seven of the eight Parsees withdrew their agreement to be members leaving only Dorabjee Hormusjee. Only Dadabhoy Rustomjee gave a reason — that the meeting of 11 th September had amended Clause 11 of the constitution making Parsees ineligible for the posts of President or Vice President of the Chamber. The other six said they would stay only briefly in Canton or they were too busy to get involved.
This letter was published in the Canton Register of 16 th December. Assuming this list of signatories is the list of dissenters and using the list of members of the Chamber at the time as confirmers, we produce the following table:. The remaining 28 ships consigned to English principals were people either uninterested in the Chamber or unavailable to vote. Vol 9 No 16 — Tuesday 19 th April We have received a membership list from the Chamber Secretary showing it has 13 members at present, including Templeton. In and the Chamber published notices inviting any British trader to join and noting that the regulations were provisional and subject to alteration by a majority on 7 days notice of intention to do so.
The Chamber has not met since Spring last year when a Chairman and committee were appointed. All it has done since then is publish statements on tea and silk trade to England. Few details of the coup have been published but the aversion to Ka Hing must have been deeply rooted for the coup to have been kept secret in this country. His willingness to buy-off troublemakers reduced the administration to its present style. Vol 9 No 17 — Tuesday 26 th April The crew escaped. On 17 th April he arrested a smuggler named Wong Ah Yan and seized boxes of marble slabs.
On 20 th April Wang seized another chests of cassia from a smuggling boat. Smuggling is becoming difficult. On 14 th April a fire broke out east of the city and burned 13 Tanka huts on the river bank. Some small boats and three shops were also destroyed. Opportunist ruffians seized two female fire victims and are holding them for ransom. Edict dated 15 th April — Woo, the Chekiang Governor, has written to Canton officials concerning two foreign ships, one a three-master, that arrived off Chapu in November He drove them off and asks the Canton government to strictly restrict the foreigners to prevent further sailings.
The Hong merchants have ordered the English Chief to obey and prevent other ships from sailing about. The Grain Superintendent is appointed to the Salt job and Hung, one of the officials-in-waiting, gets the Grain job. We then went to Lamma which had looked good but turned out to be unprotected from the weather — the best bay Sok Kwu Wan was too landlocked.
This had good depth by two entrances. We then looked at Lyemun and, of all the harbours in this vicinity, this is the best. The entrance from Tai Tam is as safe as the Bogue and gives access to deep water passages both north and south of Lintin. Kowloon Bay is an excellent anchorage of fathoms over a clay bottom, plenty of fresh water ashore and easy approaches east and west.
These observations lead us to conclude that if England is to occupy any part of South China it should be Hong Kong. If it was a free port it will be the most considerable mart east of the Cape. The Portuguese got it wrong — they accepted shallow water and exclusive rules. Hong Kong has deep water and should be a free port for ever. It was not then intended to promote an extensive smuggling trade outside the river so not every bay was examined. Indeed a close inspection of the coast would have unsettled the local officials whom the Company was at pains to keep friendly.
Now the situation has changed but what does England want with Hong Kong and its wretched village of poor fishermen Chek Chu, later called Stanley.
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Letter to the Editor — you query the usefulness of the Superintendents. Some say we just need a frigate, others that we need nothing. I think a frigate is all we need. Warships have often stayed at Lintin without injuring trade. The Chief Superintendent Sir George B Robinson has long anchored his sloop Louisa at Lintin which suggests the government acknowledges the smuggling trade. We should thank Sir George for saving us time in getting our letters and clearing our ships he signs manifests there.
A frigate based at Hong Kong, with a civil officer on board to liaise with the Canton officials, should meet the bill. Our smugglers will then soon be a match for How Qua and the Hongs. Sgd Brittanus. The recent new Customs tariff in Macau is confusing. The Macau papers are saying large quantities of cotton are being landed on payment of the deposit, either for local sale or in transit. Actually, we hear not one bale has been landed on deposit yet. On 16 th April agents of the Lady Clifford asked for permission to land cotton on deposit and were refused.
All her cotton had to pay the usual Macau duty on entry. I am writing this to you so our Indian principals are not misled. Sgd Truth, 3 rd May. Thompson worked 46 years for the Company. He was the writer who drafted the correspondence which the Court of Directors and their Secret Committee had with the Select here in China.
Superficially he must be the best informed man to opine on the China trade but, alas, this book is very weak. The people of England will not learn from this work how the Company has hoodwinked them. The April edition of the Chinese Repository has a long review from which we have selected the following extracts:.
The Gentleman's Magazine
We have all seen how, for many months after Napier, the Chinese were nervous of our response, expected trouble, and checked all reports of arrivals of foreign warships. New forts were built and old ones strengthened. Many troops were brought to the Bogue. Large new cannon were cast and the military was more frequently visited and exercised.
The Chinese are said to be peculiar and cunning. An insult from them is unlike an insult from another country. China doubted the English King would submit like the Company did to preserve its tea trade but now they have reassurance from the Napier affair that the King is just as submissive as the Company. It will be a hard task to disabuse them. An envoy should be given the fullest powers, supported by a respectable force, independent of all except the King, unconnected with trade or traders, and sent to Peking to save the situation.
We assert that China would listen to fair demands. The China-lovers, who rhapsodise about Chinese reluctance to change and the injustice of forcing change upon them, would be astonished by the results such an envoy could obtain by demands backed with force. Mr Thompson deprecates war simply for commerce. What war was ever started that would bear close scrutiny of its motives?
England has used all conceivable pretences in its actions around the world — forcing taxes on Americans, forcing a King on the French, seizing a useless island or simply keeping a ministry in power by diverting national attention overseas. It is absurd that we should require a right to make war. If we have the power, we have the right. That is the way of the world.
Everything else is humbug. Mr Thompson considers the pros and cons of managing the China relationship and concludes Macau should be ceded to us and Company agents vested in its administrative control. The Canton Register doubts the fitness of the Company in this employment. Has it not been its submissive attitude that has whittled away our privileges and reduced us to our present degraded state? When Englishmen first came to China they were private traders who demanded respect, they returned insults and gave blow for blow.
Now we buy our tea in fear that some drunken sailor will get the trade stopped. Our flag is despised, our King insulted, his envoy spurned. We are deprived of basic rights, of intercourse with our families, cooped up like rats, abused in public Edicts, denied appeal to the law and subject to all sorts of personal annoyance and moral degradation. This is the debt we owe the Company. Well, their time has passed. Let us have no more of them. Letter to the Editor — Do not decry Hong Kong too quickly. There are fine granite quarries worked by industrious stone masons who will benefit if we fortify the island.
There is a thriving fishing village whose business will improve if we move in. We can buy their land more cheaply. Sgd Temper. Editor — Hongkong is part of China, we cannot just take it. If we multiply Lintins along the coast we avoid the restrictive commercial laws by trading at sea. When we go on land we and our native trade partners are oppressed by the government. We do not have to forcibly take and retain an island — that would be piracy. The China trade is too important for the British government to abandon or leave it subject to the interdiction of the Chinese government. It would be too rapacious.
We are despondent at British efforts hitherto to protect and promote the China trade but things are so bad they can only get better. For some years we have imported large quantities of cotton and woollen goods and paid the duty. Recently the Hong merchants and Linguists have been classifying our goods wrongly and assessing them at higher rates of duty than hitherto. Our difficulty is we do not know the real scale of duties you have set. We accordingly spend much time in discussion and negotiation on something that should be fixed. This diminishes the relationship between us and the Hongs and Linguists.
We ask Your Excellency for a list of duties so this haggling may end. The government permits you to trade from feelings of tenderness. The receipt of a few hundred thousand taels in revenue is nothing to China. How can you ask me to consider weights and measures? The duties on your goods has been established for centuries. How can you claim ignorance of them?
Nevertheless I will ask the Hoppo to instruct the Hongs and Linguists to obey the revenue law. There are no grounds for meddling or misunderstanding. But you too must obey the law. You may not mix different qualities of goods together or seek for short measurement in the hope of windfall gains. In this way concord will be maintained and your trade will continue to be permitted.
I have always required the Hongs again and again to equitably impose duty on goods consistently with the revenue law. The foreigners have been coming here and paying the duties for years. Now they say the quality and measurement of their goods is no longer assessed uniformly. This is the natural result of the dissolution of the Company since which qualities and dimensions of goods are no longer uniform. The foreigners should make their imports accord with the well known qualities and measurements of the Company then all difficulties are removed.
If there is some uncertainty of quality, the goods will be classed at the lower rate. This is not a permit to assert first quality goods are second quality, etc. We treat foreigners tenderly but they should maintain equity and justice in their dealings. They should not intermingle articles of differing qualities. The Hong merchants have distinguished long ells. Those of covids 4 are considered one piece and those of covids as two pieces. This is practical and fair. As for broad cloth and camlets I have told the Hongs to be flexible within the terms of the tariff.
They are not to meddle or cause irregularities. This is a matter of Imperial revenue and no interference will be tolerated. Dated 5 th May Vol 9 No 20 — Tuesday 17 th May Letter to the Editor — the Viceroy ignores our plea saying weights and measures are beneath him. He says we have been paying duty for years so how can we be ignorant of the amount. He hands us over to the Hoppo Pang who is the instigator of all the fraudulent duties. Our complaint is that duties have recently increased. There has never been a fixed tariff here in the memory of any of the foreign traders.
Besides cotton goods have only been imported for the last 40 years and only in large quantities in the last few years. There is no years of history behind them. Mutual concord has not been maintained for years either. The Bogue forts were battered twice.
Are these rows produced in the nature of trade or are they due to unjust and oppressive management? The Viceroy appears to know nothing about trade. The Hoppo Pang has gorged himself on the spoils of trade and is now about to retire. He has been more rapacious than the three Hoppos before him combined. This is the man who publishes an Edict saying he again and again tells the Hongs to follow the tariff.
We foreigners do not know if the revenue law or the tariff actually exist. If they do why are they not disclosed to us? Pang deserves punishment for misleading the Viceroy. He insinuates the free traders mingle the qualities of their goods and the Company did not do so before. The Select used to pay first quality duty on British cottons when the Americans were importing the same stuff and having it assessed for duty as second quality. And why should the Company have cared about extra duty on teas when it held a monopoly on the supply?
The British consumer paid. The Viceroy effectively says that duties are beneath his contempt while the Hoppo says the Imperial revenues are fundamentally important — two closely liaising officials who do not tell the same story. Government servants are paid a pittance; the troops are the same.
Masses of soldiers exist on paper only for the officers to claim their salaries ; forts are in ruins. Everyone is cheating everyone else against a background of pompous professions of unlimited national wealth. We all suspect that venality and rapacity ensure the national treasury is constantly empty.
We recall the Emperor could not assemble 10, troops in any southern province without bleeding the despised Hong merchants and salt merchants for contributions. How can China stop our trade? They fundamentally rely on it. I think they are more afraid of a stoppage than the Company was. Sgd Judex 14 th May.
Vol 9 No 22 — Tuesday 31 st May Editor — the above two Edicts are good examples of obfuscating nonsense. The new Nam Hoi Heen has just issued some similar ones. They are all meaningless. The Emperor might occasionally accept the blame for a flood or a drought but none of his officers ever take responsibility for anything.
On paper we are to be treated with compassion and benevolence but in reality we are bullied, cheated and despised. A school for the study of Chinese language has been opened at Kiakhta in Mongolia to facilitate commerce between the Russian and Chinese empires. Editorial — The new acting Nam Hoi Heen Lo has issued a proclamation asserting his own honesty and alleging that if anyone claims to represent him in some corrupt enterprise he is a liar and is to be brought before the Heen for punishment.
One wonders why he finds it necessary to profess his honesty to the community. Did not his predecessors also assert utmost integrity on commencing work? Will Lo inaugurate a new era of straightforward administration? Who can believe such a thing. All that they say they will not do is done and nearly all that they say they will do is left undone. The people must well know that the officials are corrupt, otherwise how can one explain their consistent failure to attain their stated ends.
The administration of law is occasional and partial. A group of followers and retainers of office interface between the government and the people and succeed from time to time in getting things done which everyone knows should not be done. Yet the people submit to this as some immutable fact of life. The flags of all the foreign consuls in Canton were flown at half-mast. Vol 9 No 24 — Tuesday 14 th June Our China traders are unprotected. Oppression has worsened since Napier due to the consequent Chinese assumption that there is no form of injustice and indignity that we will not tolerate for money.
In the last 17 years at Canton until my departure last February I have assumed an important position amongst the free traders. What I say is echoed by all of them. I attach a copy of a petition we sent to the King. Our subsistence depends on peace and harmony with China. This can only be gained by the usual diplomatic representation. We expect this from H M Government. We do not propose war or a breach of international law.
Our early trade history in China reveals the humiliations we now experience resulted from unsound policies of the Company. It was willing to pay bribes to benefit our trade over that of other nations and willing to instigate the Chinese to restrain other national companies except ours. The Company sacrificed our self-respect. My proposals are modest and inexpensive.
We already have a costly and useless establishment in Macau and the Indian squadron could easily cruise in Chinese waters instead of lying-up in Indian ports. If a plenipotentiary is felt unnecessary then the Admiral could represent the country. Amoy harbour is ideal for British warships. No attempt to negotiate at Canton should be made. If it was, it will stop trade and in any event it is the venality and unreasonableness of the Canton officials that are the chief grounds of complaint. Our China trade is growing and with protection it will become enormous.
The Company was sometimes able to confront the Cantonese officials because it unified purpose with plenty of money. We free traders are all independent, have no recognised common leader and cannot resist the united actions of the Chinese. To avert disaster I pray you will adopt the pacific course I recommend. Another new Hong is expecting to open for business in the next few days. Peking Gazettes. He says that when the censors present papers for discussion they are secret and not to be talked about until agreement is finalised and published by the cabinet in formal Edicts.
Exposing secret deliberations is disrespectful and undignified. If it continues I will hold the great officers to account and no-one else. On the occurrence of the next leak, I have told the army commander-in-chief to seize, prosecute and punish the responsible departmental head. Peking Gazettes , 2 nd April — The Emperor has proclaimed the law on donations:.
A censor has reported the frequent embezzlement of donations to government and requested regulations for the provinces. Our government loves the people. We always try to relieve suffering from natural disasters. I intend that the relief given is substantial. No single member of the black-haired race may be destitute. When the provincial officers estimate the numbers of suffering people, I order abundant relief. They falsely report more people are distressed than actually are and take the surplus for themselves. The officers deputed to examine the disaster scenes do not check carefully.
They use the relief grain and funds to supply themselves on their journey. When the account of disbursements is made up by the writers of the provincial officers, they screen the delinquent junior officers for their own profit. If they receive no share of the loot, they contradict the local officers and raise all sorts of allegations.
All this cheating and subterfuge arises from the inability of senior officers to control their juniors. To not mitigate the distress of the people is the worst form of mal-administration. In every future disaster, the Viceroys and Governors will exert themselves to end these abuses. They will conduct enquiries and ascertain the truth. If extortion continues they must identify the Chow and Heen officers and cashier them. The junior officers, their attendants and the village constables are to be punished.
By the punishment of one, a hundred will be warned and Imperial protection of the people will be extended. I, the Emperor need the help of you senior officials, to diminish the distress of my people. The first issue of O Macaista Imparcial has been published. It will appear in Macau every Monday and Thursday. The classical scholar, the historian, the mathematician and the astronomer all need letters to promote their arts and sciences. Editor — If written words are a good thing, why are printing presses apparently a bad thing?
There may be a mixture of good and bad publications but the good predominates or we would repudiate the whole arrangement. In the first issue of O Macaista Imparcial is an article relating part of the ancient history of Macau. It is reproduced briefly hereunder:. In he was ordered to take charge of the Catholic communities east of the diocese of Malacca. He died in and is buried under the chapel of the church of St Pauls in a plain tomb covered in marble on which is inscribed a Latin epitaph.
In twelve Japanese arrived at Macau, saying they had been travelling between Japanese ports when they were blown south by a typhoon. They said the Japanese Emperor was under 40 years of age and his only son was 15 years old. This Emperor knew their were Christians in Japan but did not trouble them. The census had a total Portuguese population of 4, The new Anglo-Portuguese commercial treaty provides for reciprocal free trade. Portuguese may reside and trade in Britain and vice versa.
All are subject to the law of the land of residence. A most favoured nation MFN clause fixes duties at the lowest tariff whether carried in Portuguese or British ships but by no other nationality. The nationality of a ship is established from the nationality of its owners. All port charges are made uniform. The coasting trade is excluded and will continue to be a purely national affair. Trade and navigation in the Far East will revert to the arrangement before the Treaty of — i.
The people of Canton are ferocious. Many of them band together and carry daggers concealed in their clothes for robbery. They bully, cheat and extort and when confronted or opposed they draw these sheung meen siu do two-sided knives and stab. Iron workers receive high prices for making daggers, that is why they continue to make them when their manufacture has been repeatedly banned. The blacksmiths are so careless of the law that they send these knives to be openly hawked in the streets.
I am distributing this edict widely so none can claim ignorance of the law. Whenever these robbers are caught, quite apart from their offence, they will be closely questioned as to where they obtained their knives. Then the manufacturers will be punished along with the robbers to the same extent. You should all cleanse your hearts, alter your lives and become good men. Those of you who have these knives should throw them into the fire.
If you fail to change you will eventually be severely punished. Why not clearly state this on your Prices Current? The Linguists are clearly too strong both for us and the Kwangtung Provincial officials. Ship operators need to know this. Sgd A Ship, 24 th June We have been reluctant to publish the customary levels of squeeze as it smacks of approval.
Very infrequently, someone succeeds in avoiding the extra charges and that encourages us not to publish. We are fighting to avoid all these illegal charges and will do nothing to support them. We must be firm and cleave to the law and the tariff. This will better position us when the British flag is again hoisted at Canton. Calcutta Standard, 12 th April edition — 25 years ago the Company felt missionaries were so dangerous it forbade their carriage on its ships.
They had to go to America to take ship and smuggle themselves into China. But missionaries do not meddle in politics or cause breaches of the peace. Now precisely the contrary has occurred and trade is increasing with revenue. Now their monopoly has ended, better and cheaper tea is sent to England. There were some hiccups at the beginning but these were caused by Earl Grey in sending out a useless Commission, not the China traders. Today there are complaints of rising tea prices but this is due to the Company reasserting its monopoly by financing trade here and creating a sellers market for the Chinese.
This costs the English tea-drinker an extra 2 million Rupees which passes directly to the Company. Even today the Company tried to force through an Indian Bill the Metcalfe Mofussil Bill preventing Europeans from settling in the interior or buying land in that country, which occupation they say, has caused a plot against their rule to oppress the poor and devalue the currency.
Now we discover they were quite able to instantly extinguish the plot and the real purpose of the Bill which was said to be essential to deal with the plot has become murky. Money changers shroffs everywhere in India cheat and the Company leaves the people at their mercy. If European settlement was permitted it would end this and the other abuses of the rich native against his poor cousin.
We hope Lord Auckland will not sign this Bill without detailed consideration. Win Win. Vol 9 No 27 — Tuesday 5 th July The Hong merchants were to report rice ships and distinguish husked and unhusked grain in their reports. The ship bringing rice avoids port entry fees. Thus the domestic supply of rice is increased. The rice ship was not allowed to load an export cargo so the barbarians had no way to ballast the ship or make greater profits.
In our great compassion, after the rice had been landed and sold, we later allowed the foreigners to load export goods and depart but they had to pay the duty on the exports. Afterwards the amount of rice imported became small. We fear the barbarians were deterred from bringing rice because the Customs House staff extorted too much.
They are hereby explicitly ordered that only fees in the imperial tariff are permitted to be collected. The ships of Macau are limited in number. The ships from Koszita? Ships bringing rice to Canton generally deliver at Macau. They avoid Canton. Foreigners are naturally crafty and deceitful. It is difficult to deter their smuggling.
The Hong merchants will instruct the foreigners that, apart from the limited number of ships permitted at Macau and those of Koszita and Manila which bring rice to Macau, all other ships bringing rice to China must come up to Whampoa where their cargo will be discharged for examination. No part of the cargo may be left outside for smuggling. Smugglers will be severely punished. Tremble and obey. Viceroy Loo on 22 nd May affirmed this in another edict and fixed the fees. If the Hong merchants cannot handle the foreign trade without illegal extra revenue they should address their own government not cheat us.
The Hongs could end all this government cheating if they wished but they do not. Let the Consoo Fund feed the officials while it lasts. If we could only act unitedly we would prevail. We submit to the Regulations but we oppose the endless squeezes. The legal duty on rice ships is taels 2 mace 7 candareens and 2 cents. Why are we paying more to the Hong merchant? The Che Heen Chang Hung failed to take appropriate action.
He is dismissed as a warning to others. Some of the responsible criminals have been caught and should be strictly examined so all the facts become known. Vol 9 No 28 — Tuesday 12 th July If successful he will be eligible for the highest offices in the land. The Leung family comes from Poon Yu.
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They have now been finally refused by a vote in the Court of Directors. An association of shipowners and merchants trading to India and China has been formed to protect their interests. A committee of management has been appointed. Vol 9 No 31 — Tuesday 2 nd August They were both handed over to the magistrate and confessed but were merely bambooed and sentenced to the cangue. Formerly such offences earned the severest sentence. Swindlers have been encouraged by these mild sentences. Now we welcome our new magistrate and rejoice that you will catch these criminals. Recently the Lung Shing pawnshop handed over to you the cheat Wong Ah San who confessed to forging receipts twice and selling them for 80 taels of silver.
He was banished. We praise you for this appropriate sentence but we fear, as the sentence has not been published in an Edict, that the people will remain unaware of the new tariff for forgery. We humbly request you to issue a proclamation and have it pasted up conspicuously so all may see and know. This will relieve our anxiety. Vol 9 No 32 — Tuesday 9 th August She loaded some Straits produce at Singapore and arrived in sight of the Canton coast, 30 miles west of the Ladrones on 31 st July where she was caught in a storm and demasted. The crew managed to anchor off a beach and called for help from some Chinese assembled there who threw out a rope which was secured on board.
By this means the crew were able to pass from ship to shore but, as the first arrived on the beach, the rescuers released the rope in order to relieve the seafarers of their valuables and the remaining crew and passengers, in transit between ship and shore, fell into the sea. Seven Chinese, one Arab, two Macanese and Sr. H A Leiria, the supercargo, were all drowned. Several of the Chinese passengers were merchants from Singapore bringing gold and silver for their relatives and villages.
They opened these treasure chests before leaving the ship and distributed the contents to all who would carry them but those who got ashore were robbed of the precious metals and their finger rings, etc. After the thieves departed, the survivors were helped by an elderly man named Cheung Hop who provided food and clothes and procured a boat for them in which they arrived at Macau on 7 th August. The late Sr. Leiria was a member of the Leal Senado and a well-known member of the Macau community.
He managed to reach the beach but failed to revive and was buried there. A brig has been dispatched to reward Cheung Hop and recover whatever may still be left on the beach. We have received your answer to our representations on import duties.