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Davies, I. Laws, H. McGurk, A. Dawson, G. Dehouve, D. De Valois R. Jacobs Primate Color Vision, Science, De Valois, R.

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Friedman, eds. De Valois A multi-stage color model, Vision Research, Derefeldt, G. Gouras, ed. Derrington, A. Desimone, R. DeYoe, E. Dimmick, F. Dobkins, K. Albright What happens if it changes color when it moves? Dournes, J. Duck, M. Durbin, M. Ejima, Y. Elsner, A. Estvez, O. Evans, R. Evans-Pritchard, E. Filliozat, J. Finkelstein, M. Fischer, W. Flanagan, P. Forge, A. Mayer, ed.

Franzen, W. Friedl, E. Fukui, K. Fuld, K. Furrell, J. Gage, J. Gardner, H. Garro, L. Garth, T. Gtje, H. Gatschett, A. Geddes, W. Geiger, L. Gernet, J. Gibson, J. Gladstone, W. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. Goethe, J. Gouras, P. Chader, Eds. Grubb, D.

Haenny, P. Hamayon, R. Hamp, E. Hardin, C. Hackett, Indianapolis. Harkness, S. Heggelund, P. Heider, K. Helmholtz, H. Band Ii. Voss, Hamburg. Southall, Ed. Dover, New York Helson, H. Hering, E. Jameson, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; first German edition , translation of edition. Herne, G. Hess, J. Hess, R. Hickerson, N. Holenstein, E. Holmer, N. Hood, D. Hopkins, E. Hubel, D. Livingstone Color and contrast sensitivity in the lateral geniculate body and primary visual cortex of the Macaque monkey, Journal of Neuroscience, Hunt, R.

Hurlbert, A. Hurvich, L. Sunderland: Sinauer. Jameson Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. Brightness, saturation and hue in normal and dichromatic vision. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Ikeda, M. Indow, T. Ingling, C. Martinez The spatiotemporal properties of the r-g X-cell channel, Vision Research, Irwin, E.


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Jacobs, G. Jacobson-Widding, A. Jameson, D. Hurvich Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory. Chromatic responses and spectral saturation. Javadna, A. Jochelson, H. VI, part 2, p. Jordan, G. Juillerat, B. Katz, D. Kay, P. Sanches eds.

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Kidder, J. Kim, A. Kinkade, M. Shipley ed. Kirchhoff, A. Klee, P. Kooi, F. Krause, E. Krauskopf, J. Farell Influence of colour on the perception of coherent motion, Nature, Kristol, A. Krger, J. Kuehni, R. Van Nostrand, New York. Kuschel, R. Ladd-Franklin, C. Lakoff, G. Land, E. Laude-Cirtautas, I. Lee, B. Lenneberg, E. Lennie, P. Lewitz, S. Lienhardt, G. Lincoln, N. Livingstone, M.

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Michael, C. Miller, G. Mollon, J. Sharpe eds. Monberg, T. Montag, E. Morgan, G. Moss, A. Davies, G. Neitz, J. Jacobs More than three different cone pigments among people with normal colour vision, Vision Research, Nepote, J. Newcomer, P. Newton, I. Nickerson, D. Ohmura, H. Ottoson, T. Zeki eds. Panoff-Eliet, F. Paritsis, N. Paulus, W. Pokorny, J. Preuss, R. Pridmore, R. Pritsak, O. Proulx, P. Purdy, D. Quinn, P. Rabin, J. Radloff, W. Ratliff, F. Ratner, C. Ray, V. Riley, C. Rivers, W. Rosch Heider, E.

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Wierzbicka, A. Wood, F. Woodworth, R. Wyszecki, G. Yaguchi, H. Zahan, D. Similarly, the S- and M-cones do not directly correspond to blue and green , although they are often described as such. The RGB color model , therefore, is a convenient means for representing color, but is not directly based on the types of cones in the human eye. The peak response of human cone cells varies, even among individuals with so-called normal color vision; [6] in some non-human species this polymorphic variation is even greater, and it may well be adaptive.

Two complementary theories of color vision are the trichromatic theory and the opponent process theory.

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The trichromatic theory, or Young—Helmholtz theory , proposed in the 19th century by Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz , as mentioned above, states that the retina's three types of cones are preferentially sensitive to blue, green, and red. Ewald Hering proposed the opponent process theory in Both theories are now accepted as valid, describing different stages in visual physiology, visualized in the adjacent diagram.

In the same way that there cannot exist a "slightly negative" positive number, a single eye cannot perceive a bluish-yellow or a reddish-green. A range of wavelengths of light stimulates each of these receptor types to varying degrees. Yellowish-green light, for example, stimulates both L and M cones equally strongly, but only stimulates S-cones weakly.

Red light, on the other hand, stimulates L cones much more than M cones, and S cones hardly at all; blue-green light stimulates M cones more than L cones, and S cones a bit more strongly, and is also the peak stimulant for rod cells; and blue light stimulates S cones more strongly than red or green light, but L and M cones more weakly.

The brain combines the information from each type of receptor to give rise to different perceptions of different wavelengths of light. The opsins photopigments present in the L and M cones are encoded on the X chromosome ; defective encoding of these leads to the two most common forms of color blindness. The OPN1LW gene, which codes for the opsin present in the L cones, is highly polymorphic a recent study by Verrelli and Tishkoff found 85 variants in a sample of men. X chromosome inactivation means that while only one opsin is expressed in each cone cell, both types occur overall, and some women may therefore show a degree of tetrachromatic color vision.

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Color processing begins at a very early level in the visual system even within the retina through initial color opponent mechanisms. Both Helmholtz's trichromatic theory, and Hering's opponent process theory are therefore correct, but trichromacy arises at the level of the receptors, and opponent processes arise at the level of retinal ganglion cells and beyond.

In Hering's theory opponent mechanisms refer to the opposing color effect of red—green, blue—yellow, and light—dark. However, in the visual system, it is the activity of the different receptor types that are opposed. Some midget retinal ganglion cells oppose L and M cone activity, which corresponds loosely to red—green opponency, but actually runs along an axis from blue-green to magenta. Small bistratified retinal ganglion cells oppose input from the S cones to input from the L and M cones. This is often thought to correspond to blue—yellow opponency, but actually runs along a color axis from yellow-green to violet.

Visual information is then sent to the brain from retinal ganglion cells via the optic nerve to the optic chiasma : a point where the two optic nerves meet and information from the temporal contralateral visual field crosses to the other side of the brain. After the optic chiasma the visual tracts are referred to as the optic tracts , which enter the thalamus to synapse at the lateral geniculate nucleus LGN.

The lateral geniculate nucleus is divided into laminae zones , of which there are three types: the M-laminae, consisting primarily of M-cells, the P-laminae, consisting primarily of P-cells, and the koniocellular laminae. M- and P-cells receive relatively balanced input from both L- and M-cones throughout most of the retina, although this seems to not be the case at the fovea, with midget cells synapsing in the P-laminae.

The koniocellular laminae receive axons from the small bistratified ganglion cells. After synapsing at the LGN, the visual tract continues on back to the primary visual cortex V1 located at the back of the brain within the occipital lobe. Within V1 there is a distinct band striation. This is also referred to as "striate cortex", with other cortical visual regions referred to collectively as "extrastriate cortex".

It is at this stage that color processing becomes much more complicated. In V1 the simple three-color segregation begins to break down. Many cells in V1 respond to some parts of the spectrum better than others, but this "color tuning" is often different depending on the adaptation state of the visual system. A given cell that might respond best to long wavelength light if the light is relatively bright might then become responsive to all wavelengths if the stimulus is relatively dim. Because the color tuning of these cells is not stable, some believe that a different, relatively small, population of neurons in V1 is responsible for color vision.

These specialized "color cells" often have receptive fields that can compute local cone ratios. Such "double-opponent" cells were initially described in the goldfish retina by Nigel Daw; [16] [17] their existence in primates was suggested by David H. Hubel and Torsten Wiesel and subsequently proven by Bevil Conway.

Modeling studies have shown that double-opponent cells are ideal candidates for the neural machinery of color constancy explained by Edwin H. Land in his retinex theory. From the V1 blobs, color information is sent to cells in the second visual area, V2. The cells in V2 that are most strongly color tuned are clustered in the "thin stripes" that, like the blobs in V1, stain for the enzyme cytochrome oxidase separating the thin stripes are interstripes and thick stripes, which seem to be concerned with other visual information like motion and high-resolution form.

Neurons in V2 then synapse onto cells in the extended V4. This area includes not only V4, but two other areas in the posterior inferior temporal cortex, anterior to area V3, the dorsal posterior inferior temporal cortex, and posterior TEO. Anatomical studies have shown that neurons in extended V4 provide input to the inferior temporal lobe. Nothing categorically distinguishes the visible spectrum of electromagnetic radiation from invisible portions of the broader spectrum.

In this sense, color is not a property of electromagnetic radiation, but a feature of visual perception by an observer. Furthermore, there is an arbitrary mapping between wavelengths of light in the visual spectrum and human experiences of color.

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Although most people are assumed to have the same mapping, the philosopher John Locke recognized that alternatives are possible, and described one such hypothetical case with the " inverted spectrum " thought experiment. Synesthesia or ideasthesia provides some atypical but illuminating examples of subjective color experience triggered by input that is not even light, such as sounds or shapes. The possibility of a clean dissociation between color experience from properties of the world reveals that color is a subjective psychological phenomenon.

The Himba people have been found to categorize colors differently from most Euro-Americans and are able to easily distinguish close shades of green, barely discernible for most people. Perception of color depends heavily on the context in which the perceived object is presented. For example, a white page under blue, pink, or purple light will reflect mostly blue, pink, or purple light to the eye, respectively; the brain, however, compensates for the effect of lighting based on the color shift of surrounding objects and is more likely to interpret the page as white under all three conditions, a phenomenon known as color constancy.

Many species can see light with frequencies outside the human "visible spectrum". Bees and many other insects can detect ultraviolet light, which helps them to find nectar in flowers. Plant species that depend on insect pollination may owe reproductive success to ultraviolet "colors" and patterns rather than how colorful they appear to humans. Birds, however, can see some red wavelengths, although not as far into the light spectrum as humans. The basis for this variation is the number of cone types that differ between species.

Mammals in general have color vision of a limited type, and usually have red-green color blindness , with only two types of cones. Humans, some primates, and some marsupials see an extended range of colors, but only by comparison with other mammals. Most non-mammalian vertebrate species distinguish different colors at least as well as humans, and many species of birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians, and some invertebrates, have more than three cone types and probably superior color vision to humans.

In most Catarrhini Old World monkeys and apes—primates closely related to humans there are three types of color receptors known as cone cells , resulting in trichromatic color vision. These primates, like humans, are known as trichromats. Many other primates including New World monkeys and other mammals are dichromats , which is the general color vision state for mammals that are active during the day i. Nocturnal mammals may have little or no color vision. Trichromat non-primate mammals are rare.

Many invertebrates have color vision. Honeybees and bumblebees have trichromatic color vision which is insensitive to red but sensitive to ultraviolet. Osmia rufa , for example, possess a trichromatic color system, which they use in foraging for pollen from flowers. However, the main groups of hymenopteran insects excluding ants i. Vertebrate animals such as tropical fish and birds sometimes have more complex color vision systems than humans; thus the many subtle colors they exhibit generally serve as direct signals for other fish or birds, and not to signal mammals. It has been suggested that it is likely that pigeons are pentachromats.

Reptiles and amphibians also have four cone types occasionally five , and probably see at least the same number of colors that humans do, or perhaps more. In addition, some nocturnal geckos have the capability of seeing color in dim light. In the evolution of mammals, segments of color vision were lost, then for a few species of primates, regained by gene duplication. Eutherian mammals other than primates for example, dogs, mammalian farm animals generally have less-effective two-receptor dichromatic color perception systems, which distinguish blue, green, and yellow—but cannot distinguish oranges and reds.

There is some evidence that a few mammals, such as cats, have redeveloped the ability to distinguish longer wavelength colors, in at least a limited way, via one-amino-acid mutations in opsin genes. However, even among primates, full color vision differs between New World and Old World monkeys. Old World primates, including monkeys and all apes, have vision similar to humans. Several marsupials such as the fat-tailed dunnart Sminthopsis crassicaudata have been shown to have trichromatic color vision.

Several others have produced similar graphics for different datasets already. Thanks, Ed. Looks fantastic! I hope to be providing a place to order these prints soon. Hi Is Germany also available in really high resolution or vector? I would like to print that out to use it as art and as a warning to all of us, that this is a dangerous trend. Hi Axel — send an email to editor climate-lab-book. Erstklassiges und anschauliches Diagramm. Hi Ed, how large are the Warming Stripes files? Thanks, Matias.

The files weigh 5KB. Where might I find a large, printable image? Thanks again, Matias. There are online editors that will provide this service for free.

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This would allow all the graphs to be on the same visual scale for comparison. In the most crucial ecosystem for human survivability. If the hottest in UK is That day, you will start a weather which is quite nicer that the current at the UK to live outdoors living, terraces instead of dark pubs, open air markets, balconies at your appartments.. Have a great day! They can be freely used, but would appreciate an acknowledgement somewhere!

Thanks for such a great graphic! I will use the one for Toronto when teaching. I would like it more if the link to the data is not broken, though…. Hi Ed, great work! Are the graphics free for use under a Creative Commons License or eventually public domain? Thaks a lot! Hi Ingo, Graphics are free to use with an acknowledgement, and a link to the source this page if online. Dear Ed, with great interest and admiration, I have followed your publication of the warming stripes.

I would like to hang the picture for Germany as a large-scale expression in my office as art and at the same time warning everyone that this is a dangerous trend. Could you send me a high resolution file via Mail: bjoernruesing gmail. At first glance very impressive graphics. What do we know about measuring principles and methods decades and centuries ago?

What do we know about measurement accuracy, calibration and uncertainties? How would the graphics look like if historical readings would be corrected in an appropriate way? If there is not comparable resolution, then it is possible that recent short-term warming of the degree evident in these depictions might have also happened historically, but the lower resolution of historical data would not show this warming.

Can I get the images also for my computer, tablets and phone for the background. It is a stark reminder to do every day the right thing to stabilize the climate. And to talk with people about it, if necessary. It is visible this way and a topic for a conversation. We can play with statistics, computer modelling, even drag up articles from nearly a hundred years ago, but sooner than later, the realisation that there is something askew with our environment and our climate, that even the overly optimistic deniers must give credence to.

In truth there is just one graph, it starts from degrees years ago and heads up on a 45 degree angle. They think 1. But what about the human factor, will we suddenly get into gear and do something? Well, going by the endless climate summits, that is very unlikely, and even if it were, the inevitable, self-centred question will be asked… What do we want everyone else to do about it!

Hello, these are great. Trying to get my around all the details so I can explain the figure to others. Could someone explain in laymans terms how the temp for each year is derived? Is it a country wide average? For example the Australian data linked says it is the annual mean temperature anomaly, that would mean as there are more and more hot years the average will also rise more and more over time and the increase in temp will be somewhat masked by using the temperature anomaly wont it?

Like these a lot its what might bring it home to less technical population, who need to see them, these are representations and for those who criticise the lack of this and that well you could have done it first with all the bells and whistles added. This is really effective. The chart seems to have only plotted since for example.

Seems to have missed the earlier periods that we kind of know of about 15, BC. Dear Ed, I followed with great interest your publication of the warming strips.


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Do you have a version for France?